Have you ever wondered how a smartphone can replace a computer, a camera, and an MP3 player all at once? Or have you observed how 3D printing has influenced production and industry? Both of these revolutionary changes were possible thanks to innovations that redefined our understanding of particular areas of life. They are referred to as “disruptive technologies,” a term first coined by Clayton M. Christensen in 1995. Since then, the business world has been constantly evolving thanks to technological advances. Read on.

Definition of disruptive technologies

Disruptive technologies are innovations that radically change the way markets work. They transform existing business models and inspire the emergence of entirely new ones. Recognizing and responding to the changes they bring about is crucial for modern businesses.

The world of technology is changing at an unprecedented pace. Therefore, the ability to adapt and, above all, use disruptive technologies to your advantage enables further growth and creates new opportunities for entrepreneurs. But how can you prepare your company for such breakthroughs?

Disruptive technologies across centuries

Among the most influential disruptive technologies that revolutionized the world in the late 20th and early 21st centuries, the most frequently mentioned ones are the Internet, mobile telephony, and 3D printing. But how did they change the way businesses work?


The Internet developed and spread rapidly in the 1990s. Before it appeared, access to information was limited and communication was incomparably slower. The Internet has enabled global connectivity, as well as access to knowledge and the latest news on an unprecedented scale. In this way, it has contributed to the emergence of new industries, such as e-commerce. The advent of the Internet allowed companies that previously operated solely on a local scale to expand their reach and sell their products worldwide.

Mobile telephony

Mobile telephony was a disruptive technology of the 1980s. That’s when the first cell phones began to appear, and the brands associated with them were Nokia, Motorola, and Sagem.

Before cell phones became widely available, telephone communication was limited to expensive and often low-quality landline connections. After the introduction of mobile telephony, the way of communication changed dramatically. Although calls were expensive and prices varied depending on the time of day, smartphones quickly became an integral part of everyday life. Many companies embraced mobile telephony recognizing its potential for conducting business anytime, anywhere.

3D printing

Despite a few emerging ideas in the 1970s, Charles Hull is widely recognized as the inventor of 3D printing since he registered his patent for a printer of this kind on August 8, 1984. Therefore, 3D printing, like mobile phones, appeared in the 1980s. However, it didn’t become popular quickly.

Before the introduction of 3D printing, the process of prototyping and producing small batches of products was time-consuming and expensive. 3D printing helped to speed up these processes, enabling faster prototyping and personalized production. Thanks to 3D printing, small companies can now develop and test new products faster, responding to market needs.

Disruptive technologies today

However, there are disruptive technologies that are transforming the world right in front of us, and their impact is sometimes overlooked or underestimated. These technologies include:

  1. Artificial intelligence (21st century) – before the just-emerging era of artificial intelligence, data analysis, and process automation were limited to the capabilities of algorithms created by programmers and the patterns that the human eye could see. Artificial intelligence introduces advanced process and service automation, as well as enables a better understanding of customers through more efficient data analysis. For example, companies can analyze customer data in real time, tailoring their offers and services to their individual needs.
  2. Cloud computing – that is, moving the computational tasks needed to run a business to the cloud. Cloud computing is one of the most recognized disruptive technologies of recent years, enabling the storage, processing, and management of data on remote servers. Through cloud services, companies can scale their IT resources and leverage advanced technologies without the need to invest in their own infrastructure. Cloud services have significantly increased the flexibility of businesses, facilitated innovation, and reduced the costs associated with managing and maintaining IT infrastructure.
  3. Virtual reality (VR) – it is a budding disruptive technology that lets people fully immerse themselves in the digital world. Thanks to VR, it is possible to conduct training sessions, create realistic simulations, and explore remote locations without being physically present. Virtual reality has immense potential in business sectors related to medicine, education, tourism, and entertainment, introducing new standards of communication and interaction. It opens up new possibilities and redefines how we interact with digital content.
  4. Smart solutions and digital twins – as digital technologies, including artificial intelligence, continue to evolve, they are entering various areas, ranging from “smart” appliances like refrigerators and cars to interconnected cities and factories. With technological advancements, an increasing number of devices and systems are becoming intelligent and capable of autonomous learning and adaptation. This enables them to optimize energy usage and achieve higher levels of efficiency, safety, and comfort while minimizing their environmental impact.


Disruptive technologies, both past and present, are contributing to radical changes in the markets and society. From the Internet, mobile telephony, and 3D printing to artificial intelligence, cloud services, virtual reality, and smart solutions, each of these technologies brings new opportunities and challenges for businesses. The key to success is to understand these changes and adapt to them in a flexible manner to achieve a competitive advantage and survive in the market.

What other undiscovered disruptive technologies will revolutionize our lives in the future? And how can we prepare for their emergence? In a world where the boundaries between virtual and real are starting to blur, will we be able to predict the new possibilities and challenges that will arise?

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What are disruptive technologies? | Digitizing your business #24 andy nichols avatar 1background

Author: Andy Nichols

A problem solver with 5 different degrees and endless reserves of motivation. This makes him a perfect Business Owner & Manager. When searching for employees and partners, openness and curiosity of the world are qualities he values the most.

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